Tipe Letusan Strombolian

KODE : L1.SU.B12


Letusan tipe Strombolian merupakan tipe letusan gunungapi berenergi rendah yang diadopsi dari letusan Gunungapi Stromboli di Italia. Letusan Gunungapi Stromboli menyemburkan material pijar berupa lapili dan bom lava beberap meter hingga ratusan meter ke udara. Volume material letusan kecil hingga sedang dengan kekuatan letusan yang sporadis.
Material letusan berwarna merah ketika tersemburkan dari kawah tetapi menjadi kehitaman ketika mulai mengalami pendinginan dan menjadi batuan padat. Material letusan terakumulasi di sekitar pusat letusan dan membentuk kerucut sinder, Lava Basaltik mengalir dalam jarak yang cukup pendek dan tebal seperti yang terjadi pada letusan tipe Hawaiian, letusan tipe Strombolian tidak menghaslkan aliran piroklastika.
Kandungan gas berbentuk gelembung, yang dinamakan stug berkembang menjadi besar dan muncul melalui pipda kepunden dan menyembur di permukaan sehingga tekanannya menjadi berkurang. Setiap letusan selalu mengeluarkan gas gunungapi, kadang-kadang selama beberapa menit. Gas slug dapat terbentuk pada kedalaman 3 km sehingga sulit diprediksi.
Aktifitas letusan tipe Strombolan berlangsung cukup lama karena sistem kepunden tidak dipengaruhi oleh aktifitas letusan sehingga letusan dapat terjadi berulang-ulang. Sebagai contoh, letusan Gu release volcanic gases, sometimenungapi Paricutin yang berlangsung secara menerus antara tahun 1943-1952. Letusan tipe Strombolian di Gunungapi Erebus, Antartika berlangsung selama beberapa dekade. Sementara itu, letusan di Gunungapi Stromboli berlangsung ribuan tahun.

Ciri-ciri Tipe Letusan Strombolian :

  1. Memuntahkan material bom, lapili, dan abu
  2. Letusan terjadi pada interval waktu yang sama
  3. Tekanan gas rendah
  4. Magmanya sangat cair

 

Strombolian eruptions are relatively low-level volcanic eruptions. This type of eruption was named after the Italian volcano named Stromboli. These eruptions consist of ejection of incandecent cinder, lapili and lava bombs to altritudes of tens to hundreds of meters. They are small to medium in volume, with sporadic scale of eruption.
The tephra typically glows red when it is thrown from the vent, but as it surface cools, it become dark to black colour when it solidify. The tephra accumulations in the vicinity of the vent, forming a cinder cone. The basaltic lava flows down in a shorter distance and become thicker, than the corresponding Hawaiian eruptions: it may or may not be accompanied by production of pyroclastic rock.
The gas coalesces into bubbles, called slugs, and grow large enough to rise through the magma coloumn, bursing near the top due to decrase in pressure and throwing magma into the air. Each episode thus releases volcanic gases, sometimes as frequently as a few minutes apart. Gas slug can form as deep as 3 kilometers, therefore it is difficult to predict.
Strombolian eruptive activity can be very long-lasting because the conduit system is not affected by eruptive activity, so that the eruption can repeatedly occur. For example, the Paricutin volcano erupted continuously between 11943-1952. Mount Erebus, Antarticua has produced Strombolian eruptions for at least many decades, and Strombolo itself has been producing Stromboloan eruptions dor several thousand years.

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